Kayak Front

Trauma counselling and psychotherapy

What is trauma?


According to the American Psychological Association (APA), trauma is a response to an event that a person finds highly stressful and can’t cope with. The person does not have the emotional and psychological capacity to process the disturbing experience. Trauma causes both physical and emotional symptoms.


A traumatized person can feel a wide range of emotions both immediately after the event and in the long term. They can feel overwhelmed, confused, helpless, hopeless and stuck in the traumatized past experience (without even being aware of this).


Causes of trauma can be any of the following:

  • physical, psychological, or sexual abuse

  • childbirth

  • life-threatening illnesses

  • sudden loss of a loved one

  • being attacked

  • challenging family dynamics

  • financial struggles

  • physical and emotional neglect

  • depressed parents

  • lack of parental emotional attunement

  • bullying

The emotional symptoms a person can have included any of the following:

  • anger

  • fear

  • sadness

  • grief

  • shame

  • confusion

  • anxiety

  • depression

  • numbness

  • flashbacks and/or nightmares

  • dissociative states

The physical symptoms the trauma can cause include:

  • headaches

  • digestive symptoms

  • fatigue

  • sweating

  • feeling jumpy

Types of trauma


Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder


PTSD develops when the symptoms of trauma persist or get worse in the weeks and months after the stressful event. PTSD is distressing and interferes with a person’s daily life and relationships.

Symptoms include anxiety, flashbacks, nightmares, avoidance (procrastination and also avoiding thinking about the event), hopelessness, helplessness, depressive states and persistent memories of the event. PTSD may last for years, but with the right treatment, people can manage to handle the traumatic triggers which improve the quality of their life and relationships.

Attachment and developmental trauma

Children are highly sensitive to trauma as their brains are still developing. During stressful events, children experience a high state of stress, while their bodies release cortisol, which is the primary stress hormone.

This type of trauma is known as developmental trauma and it can disrupt normal brain development. Children’s traumatic experiences have a deeply negative impact on their long-term mental, emotional and physical development and health which in time affects personality formation.

The hypervigilant state and feelings of powerlessness and hopelessness can persist into adulthood and they influence the way people relate and behave in their lives.


Trauma therapy


My therapy approach involves cutting-edge techniques that target traumatic events and memories.

Reprocessing traumatic memories involves connecting traumatic memories with new information. The result is that distressing images, thoughts, sensations  and emotions associated with traumatic memories can be integrated with new resources. The neurobiology of trauma recovery helps you to move out of the hopelessness states by increasing the capacity to feel empowered and capable to live in the here and now, enjoying the life you want for yourself.

I am using AEDP therapy, EMDR, Brainspotting and Deep Brain Reorienting for treating complex cases of trauma.